Weed Killers By The Glass: Richmond, Indiana
Citizen Monitoring Results
Richmond drinking water is contaminated with cancer causing weed killers at levels that have exceeded federal health standards for at least two compounds. Tests of city tap water found up to five different pesticides or metabolites in a single sample. The most common pesticide contaminant was atrazine, which was found in 88 percent of tap water samples tested between May 15 and July 1, 1995. Cyanazine was found in 38 percent of these same samples. During this test period approximately 300 infants in Richmond consumed infant formula reconstituted with water contaminated with up to five toxic weed killers. (Note 1: Ershow, Abby G., and Cantor, Kenneth P. 1989. Total Water and Tapwater Intake in the United States: Population-Based Estimates of Quantities and Sources. Life Sciences Research Office; Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Bethesda, MD)
Most of these weed killers are used in corn production. Since 1985, taxpayers have subsidized Indiana corn growers at a rate of $278 million per year, for a ten year total of $2.78 billion. Farmers in turn pay nothing to clean up the water. The pesticide industry claims that farmers' weed control cost would double if these polluting herbicides were banned. Assuming the industry claim is true, the added costs to farmers would amount to just 11 percent of the value of the subsidy taxpayers pay to these corn farmers each year.
Causes mammary gland cancer in female rats in repeated studies.(Note 2: Copley, Marion. 1989. Follow-up to the Third Peer Review of Atrazine. EPA. Washington, D.C.; International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1991. World Health Organization. IARC Monographs on the Evolution of Cancer Risk to Humans. Vol. 53.) Classified by the EPA as a possible human carcinogen. Federal health standard in drinking water -- 3 parts per billion (ppb), European Drinking Water Standard -- 0.1 ppb.
- Found in 88 percent of 16 tap water samples
- 13 percent of samples were above the federal health standard
- Highest level found -- 4.50 ppb, one and one half times the federal health standard.
- Average concentration -- 1.10 ppb.
Causes mammary gland cancer in rats and birth defects in rats and rabbits in repeated studies. Causes genetic mutations. According to the EPA this makes cyanazine a potent carcinogen.(Note 3: Dykstra, William. 1991. Peer Review of Cyanazine (Bladex). EPA. Washington, D.C.) Classified by the EPA as a possible human carcinogen, required birth defects warning on the product label. Federal health guideline in drinking water -- 1 ppb. European Drinking Water Standard -- 0.1 ppb.
- Found in 38 percent of samples
- 13 percent of samples were above the federal health advisory.
- Highest level found -- 3.00 ppb, three times the federal health advisory.
- Average concentration -- 0.54 ppb.
Tests for Multiple Weed Killers
- Five pesticides or metabolites -- atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, and desethylatrazine -- were found in a single sample of Richmond tap water collected on July 3, 1995.
- These five pesticides or metabolites include one pesticide classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen, three pesticides classified as possible human carcinogens, one pesticide that causes birth defects in animal studies, and two pesticides that disrupt the normal functioning of the hormone system.
Federal drinking water standards do not account for this simultaneous exposure to multiple pesticides (or other contaminants) in drinking water, and allow cancer risks from these weed killers up to 29 times higher than the federal government allows from the same chemicals in food.
Use of 6 Major Herbicides on Indiana Corn Reached 18 Million Pounds in 1994, up 2.3 Million Pounds Since 1990
Herbicide Acres Treated, 1994 Use, 1994 (lbs.) Acetochlor 240,000 361,000 Alachlor 1,400,000 3,005,000 Atrazine 5,300,000 7,190,000 Cyanazine 1,159,000 2,487,000 Metolachlor 2,623,000 4,911,000 Simazine 122,000 130,000
(Note 4: USDA 1995. Agricultural Chemical Usage: 1994 Field Crops Summary.)