Monster Wells

Despite Drought, Hundreds of Fracking Sites Used More Than 10 Million Gallons of Water

November 18, 2014

Monster Wells: References

  1. www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas-overview/exploration-and-production/hydraulic-fracturing/~/media/Files/Oil-and-Natural-Gas/Hydraulic-Fracturing-primer/Hydraulic-Fracturing-Primer-2014-highres.pdf
  2. One Olympic-sized swimming pool holds about 660,000 U.S. gallons.
  3. www.epa.gov/tp/pdf/hydraulic-fracturing-fact-sheet.pdf. A coalbed formation is a seam in a coal deposit that produces methane. A shale formation is a buried layer of shale rock that holds deposits of natural gas.
  4. The population of Atascosa County, south of San Antonio, was 46,446 in 2012. According to the Texas Water Development Board, in 2011 the average Texan used almost 37,000 gallons of water a year. Therefore the county uses about 1.7 billion gallons a year.
  5. http://www.texastribune.org/2013/05/07/texas-groundwater-dropped-sharply-amid-droughtstud/
  6. www.droughtmonitor.unl.edu/
  7. www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/hf-report20121214.pdf
  8. www.gao.gov/assets/590/587522.pdf
  9. http://www.propublica.org/article/injection-wells-the-poison-beneath-us
  10. http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-fracking-groundwater-pavillion-20140811-story.html#page=1
  11. www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/aug/11/texas-tragedy-ample-oil-no-water
  12. www.srbc.net/newsroom/NewsRelease.aspx?NewsReleaseID=83.
  13. www.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/us/struggle-for-water-in-colorado-with-rise-in-fracking.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
  14. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/us/struggle-for-water-in-colorado-with-rise-in-fracking.html?pagewanted=all&_r=2&
  15. www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-08-14/fracking-hazards-obscured-in-failure-to-disclose-wells.html and
  16. www.propublica.org/article/critics-find-gaps-in-state-laws-to-disclose-hydrofracking-chemicals
  17. www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/04/f14/20140328_SEAB_TF_FracFocus2_Report_Final.pdf, p. 6
  18. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-08-14/fracking-hazards-obscured-in-failure-to-disclose-wells.html
  19. For some wells, FracFocus lists both the start and completion date; the start date is used here.
  20. www.encana.com/sustainability/environment/water/use/volumes.html
  21. www.eogresources.com/responsibility/water_management.html
  22. Ibid.
  23. www.newfield.com/environment.aspx
  24. www.eqt.com/docs/pdf/EQT_CSR_Report_2012-2013.pdf
  25. www.dvn.com/CorpResp/initiatives/Pages/CanaWaterRecycling.aspx
  26. www.murphyoilcorp.com/Responsibility/Health-Safety-Environment/#Environment
  27. http://www.gosanangelo.com/business/one-scarce-resource-for-another-water-151-and-of
  28. www.twdb.texas.gov/publications/reports/contracted_reports/doc/0904830939_2012Update_MiningWaterUse.pdf
  29. http://law.onecle.com/texas/water/36.117.00.html
  30. http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/importsexports/annual/
  31. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303722104579239831640276094
  32. http://stateimpact.npr.org/texas/2013/03/13/ambiguities-persist-in-regulating-water-withdrawals-for-fracking/