1 The Environmental Working Group, Rethinking Carcinogens. 2015. Available at www.ewg.org/research/rethinking-carcinogens 2 William H. Goodson III et al, Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: the challenge ahead. Carcinogenesis, Jun 2015;36 Suppl 1:S254-96. 3 Martyn T. Smith et al, Key characteristics of carcinogens as a basis for organizing data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect, Nov 24 2015. 4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Reducing environmental cancer risk: what we can do now. President’s Cancer Panel, 2008-2009 Annual Report. By Suzanne H. Reuben. Bethesda, MD. April 2010. 5 Robert F. Herrick et al, An unrecognized source of PCB contamination in schools and other buildings. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2004; 112(10):1051–1053. 6 Nancy B. Hopf et al, Evaluation of exposure biomarkers in offshore workers exposed to low benzene and toluene concentrations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 2012;85(3):261-271. 7 Teodorico Casale et al, Workers exposed to low levels of benzene in urban air: Assessment of peripheral blood count variations. Chemosphere, 2016;152:392-398. 8 Paul W. Sammarco et al, Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico. Arch Toxicol, 2016;90(4):829-837. 9 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Environmental Health, 2005. Available at www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-excellence-in-environmental-health-tracking/Third_Report.pdf 10 S. M. Hays et al, Biomonitoring equivalents: a screening approach for interpreting biomonitoring results from a public health risk perspective. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, Feb 2007;47(1):96-109. 11 Lesa L. Aylward et al, Evaluation of biomonitoring data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a risk assessment context: perspectives across chemicals. Environ Health Perspect, Mar 2013;121(3):287-94. 12 Douglas Hanahan & Robert A. Weinberg, The hallmarks of cancer. Cell, 2000;100(1):57-70. 13 Douglas Hanahan & Robert A. Weinberg, Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell, 2011;144(5):646-674. 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 100E. Personal habits and indoor combustions. Lyon, France: IARC 2012. Available at monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100E/index.php 15 Ruthann A. Rudel et al, New exposure biomarkers as tools for breast cancer epidemiology, biomonitoring, and prevention: a systematic approach based on animal evidence. Environ Health Perspect, Sept 2014;122(9):881-95. 16 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010. Available at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/ 17 Scott D. Ramsey et al, Financial insolvency as a risk factor for early mortality among patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol, Mar 2016;34(9):980-986. 18 World Health Organization, Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. 2009. Geneva.