Toxic Plastics Chemical in Infant Formula

Executive summary

August 9, 2007

Toxic Plastics Chemical in Infant Formula: References

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Biles, J. E., McNeal, T. P. and Begley, T. H. Determination of bisphenol A migrating from epoxy can coatings to infant formula liquid concentrates. J Agric Food Chem 1997; 45: 4697-4700.

Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Caudill SP, Ekong J, Needham LL. 2005. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(4): 391-5.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 2005. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Centers for Disease Control.

EWG (Environmental Working Group) 2007. Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food. Available online at

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 1996. Cumulative exposure estimated for bisphenol A (BPA), individually for adults and infants from its use in epoxy-based can coatings and polycarbonate (PC) articles, verbal request of 10-23-95, memorandum to G. Diachenki, Ph.D., Division of Product Manufacture and Use, HGS-245, from Allan B. Bailey, Ph.D., Chemistry Review Branch, HFS-245.

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Kuroda N, Kinoshita Y, Sun Y, Wada M, Kishikawa N, Nakashima K, Makino T, Nakazawa H. 2003. Measurement of bisphenol A in human blood serum and ascitic fluid by HPLC using a fluorescent labeling reagent. J Pharm Biomed Anal 30(6): 1743-9.

Schonfelder G, Wittfoht W, Hopp H, Talsness CE, Paul M. Chahoud I. 2002. Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal-fetal-placental unit. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(11):A703-7.

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) (1996). Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996.

Ye X, Kuklenyik Z, Needham LL, Calafat AM. 2006. Measuring environmental phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope diution tandem amss spectrometry. J Chromatorgraphy. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 831(1-2): 110-5.